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Chapter 6 Cellular Signals

Quiz by Courtney Simpson

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13 questions
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  • Q1
    Which of the following if true of chemical signalling molecules?
    They produce a response in target cells when released
    They only stimulate an effect on the cell that produced them
    They require carrier proteins to be transported through body fluids
    They always produce a rapid response
  • Q2
    In the disease multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath surrounding the axons of neurons is broken down. One of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis is weakening of the muscles. A possible cause for this weakening could be
    The transmission of electrical impluses along the axons of neurons is slowed
    neurotransmitters are inhibited from travelling along neurons
    The size of the electrical impulses travelling along the axon is smaller
    neurotransmitter receptors on the muscle cells have become less sensitive
  • Q3
    Some responses r reactions seen in individuals are caused by the release of chemicals into the environment by other individuals of the same species. These chemicals are called
  • Q4
    Vibrio chlerae produces a toxin that binds to a plasma membrane receptor on intestinal cells of the host. The toxin permanently activates the G protein in target cells, causing them to lose water rapidly. When a person is infected with cholera they suffer severe dehydration. V. chloerae toxin
    Is an example of a second messenger molecule
    Acts as a neurohormone
    Disrupts normal signal transduction in the cell
    Is a lipid-soluble molecule
  • Q5
    A known relationship between a plant growth hormone (regulator) and its effect includes
    Gibberellin - stomatal closure
    Cytokinin - promotes fruit ripening
    Auxin - cell elongation
    Abscisic acid - promotes flowering
  • Q6
    Human and plant hormones are similar in that all are
    Active on a single target tissue
    Signalling molecules that act on receptor molecules
    Composed of gylcoproteins
    Transported around the organism by a circulating fluid
  • Q7
    Peptide hormones
    Must bind with membrane receptors in order to affect a target cell
    Bind with nuclear DNA in target cells
    May diffuse into a cell through the phospholipid bilayer
    Enter target cells by active transport
  • Q8
    Which of the following is not a function of protein molecules found in the membranes of cells?
    They act as receptor sites for some signalling molecules
    The facilitate the diffusion of charged particles
    They are the site of active u[take of glucose molecules
    They act as channels for the transport of lipid-soluble molecules
  • Q9
    Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) is an amino acid hormone which plays a major role in the maintenance of a relatively stable concentration of body fluids (osmoregulation) by increasing the permeability of the collecting tubules in the kidneys to water. Which of the following is not involved with the transduction of ADH?
    Proteins located in the cytosol are activated.
    A second messenger is activated inside the cell
    Receptors located in the cytosol
  • Q10
    A signal transduction pathway is activated by a cytoplasmic receptor. Which of the following would have been the initiating signal?
    A steroid
    A protein hormone
    A neurotransmitter
    A neurohormone
  • Q11
    After a neurotransmitter binds to the post synaptic terminal it then has to be broken down. Explain how cellular communication would be effected if the neurotransmitter remained bound to the receptor on the post synaptic terminal.
    The post synaptic neuron will be unresponsive to any further signalling molecules
    The post synaptic neuron would continue to respond to the neurotransmitter
    The components of the neurotransmitter cannot be broken down and reused
    Additional neurotransmitter molecules would not be released into the synapse
  • Q12
    Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse after an influx of calcium ions into the presynaptic terminal of a neuron. Neurotransmitters are considered to be signalling molecules because:
    They are secreted by one cell and act on another cell
    They are produced in response to a signal being received from another cell
    They are released from a target cell by the process of exocytosis
    They are produced as a result of neural stimulus occurring
  • Q13
    Which of the following relates to steroid hormones?
    They cause the activation of a second messenger after binding to an internal receptor
    They travel to their target cell bound to a transport protein
    The receptors for steroid hormones are always located in the cytosol
    They cause the activation of proteins that are already present in the cytosol

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