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March 12th Review

Quiz by Adrian Quintana

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14 questions
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  • Q1

    What did the authors of the Szczepanik et al. study conclude was necessary for fear response acquisition?

    Skin Conductance Response Above Baseline 

    Reduced Response to Startle 

    US/CS+ contingency 

    Close Relationship between observer and presenter. 

  • Q2

    What was unique about the participant selection for this study?

    Only participants with known neurological disorders were selected.

     Participants were required to have a high score on the McGill Friendship Questionnaire.

    All participants were studying psychology or cognitive science.

    Participants were randomly assigned to friend pairs.

  • Q3

    What distinguishes observational fear learning (OFL) from instructed fear learning?

    OFL requires the learner to experience the aversive stimulus directly

     Instructed fear learning is a form of social learning, while OFL is not

     Instructed fear learning relies solely on verbal instructions without any demonstrations.

     OFL involves learning fear responses by observing others experiencing an aversive stimulus.

  • Q4

    What was a key methodological difference in this study that aimed to improve ecological validity compared to past research on fear learning?

    Using only video recordings of fear conditioning sessions for observation.

    Utilizing a larger number of participants to ensure statistical significance.

    The inclusion of real-time observation of friends undergoing fear conditioning.

    Conducting the experiments in a real-world environment outside the laboratory.

  • Q5

    Which brain pathway is primarily involved in the neural processing of observational fear learning?

    Hippocampal-cortical pathway

    Amygdala-Thalamic-cortical pathway

    Cerebellar pathway

    Basal ganglia pathway

  • Q6

    Which statement best describes social learning?

    Learning in isolation.

    Learning from personal reinforcement.

    Learning by observing others.

    Learning through direct instruction.

  • Q7

    What does the term "CS/US contingency" refer to in the context of conditioning?

    The independence of two stimuli.

    The unpredictability of a stimulus.

    The association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US).

    The duration of a stimulus.

  • Q8

    True or False: Most of the participants in this study learned the CS+/US contingen



  • Q9

    Which of the following fear learning responses was included in this study that had never been included in previous studies:

    Cortisol Levels 

    Skin Conductance Response 

    Fear Potentiated Startle 

    Heart Rate 

  • Q10

    True or False: The observer underwent the electric shock phase just like the demonstrator



  • Q11

    Which of the following may have been the cause of the unlearned contingency?

    Variability in demonstrators

    All of the above 

    Distracting stimulus due to white noise burst

    Generalization of the square shape as the shock predictor rather than the color

  • Q12

    These results tell us ____ about humans

    We are not good at paying attention

    We are likely to have fear even if we are not conscious of the threat

    We are highly sensitive to all cues related to threat

    We are similar to rats

  • Q13

    Which of the following did NOT contribute to the ecological validity of this study?

    The participants knew each other well

    Two measures of fear are tested including FPS and SCR

    The observer viewed the demonstrator through a live stream

    The study was conducted in real-time (not a pre-recorded video)

  • Q14

    True or false: The addition of FPS allows us to make greater cross-species comparison with relation to observational fear learning




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