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Patho Exam 4 Part A

Quiz by Brittany

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82 questions
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  • Q1
    Why is osteomyelitis so difficult to treat?
    Too many WBC's can get into the infected site , Once pathogens are introduced to the infected site antibiotics won't work anymore.
    The bone plate will not close completely causing future fractures to the patient, a deficet in calcium will cause pain to the patient.
    Hard to get sufficient levels of antibiotics to the area, Bone breakdown from infection impairs bone strength, once pathogens are introduced, it is hard for WBC's to get to them.
    It's difficult to treat due to their age, ethnicity and reason for the fracture, It's hard for osteoblasts to travel to the site of fracture and help in repair
  • Q2
    What is the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?
    cartilage destruction from physical wear and tear
    multiple fractures in the affected joint
    excess joint fluid puts pressure on the joint tissues
    autoimmune cartilage destruction
  • Q3
    Joint involvement is usually bilateral
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Q4
    obesity can cause it due to stress on the joint
    hip displacement
    rheumatoid arthitis
  • Q5
    Most often affects the base of the great toe
    rheumatoid arthitis
    breech at delivery
  • Q6
    can be classified as a metabolic disorder since theres usually increased uric acid production or clearence
    rheumatoid arthitiis
  • Q7
    what causes a stress fracture
    Repeated stress on a bone
    An inherited disorder which makes the bone more vulnerable to fracture from pressure
    An incident of excess force applied to a bone
    Prolonged periods of increased exposure to catecholamines
  • Q8
    Why are diabetics particularly prone to infections?
    more oxygen level to the tissues from RBC changes, Impaired WBC function
    High glucose level is a feast for pathogens, Decreased sensations from neuropathies, Compromised circulation from vessel changes produced by a prolonged high glucose level, Less oxygen delivery to tissues from RBC changes, Impaired WBC function
    Low glucose levels cause pathogens to increase and multiply, most diabetics are not able to control their blood sugar, medications are too expensive for majority of the population
  • Q9
    Burn injuries make patients more prone to infections because:
    The fuel for the fire producing the burn may have had bacteria in it and it is difficult to remove it from a burn
    Blood vessel destruction decreases blood flow to the area so pathogens are harder to destroy
    Burn creams provide an excellent medium for bacteria
    Burns compromise the first line of defense leaving the individual more susceptible to infection
  • Q10
    Which diabetics usually have enough insulin receptors but make little or no insulin?
    Diabetes Insipidus
    Gestational Diabetes
    DM Type 1
    DM Type 2
  • Q11
    ncreased histamine production makes most skin irritations of an allergic origin feel itchy.
  • Q12
    Why do many with type 2 diabetes often have increased levels of insulin before they become diabetic?
    The beta cells genetically over produce insulin and then stop making insulin.
    They have inherited a type of beta cells that are larger than normal and produce excess insulin but don't last as long.
    They break down insulin at a higher rate than others.
    Initially they produce greater amounts of insulin to lower excess blood sugar levels but eventually can't any longer.
  • Q13
    Small areas of erythema without openings/breaks, on the skin of someone at risk for a decubitus ulcer usually requires no attention or treatment.
  • Q14
    What could result if a displaced fracture isn't properly reduced?
    A bone infection could develop
    There could be excess bleeding into the area
    Malunion of the healed bone
    No healing would occur
  • Q15
    What is the most common cause of elevated levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion?
    autoimmune disease
    heart failure

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