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12 questions
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  • Q1
    An estuary collects sediments from the ocean and rivers that feed into it. The sediments swirl around and then settle to form a mudflat. Eel grass is then established on the mudflat. The ecosystem changes over time and ultimately develops into a salt marsh that contains mangrove trees. Which of the following is likely NOT involved in this example of ecological succession?
    The roots from plants help stabilize the sediment, keeping it in place
    The concentration of salt becomes so high that all plant life is destroyed
    The soil becomes so fertile that eel grass is replaced by other plant species
    The rotting remains of plants add to the fertility of the soil
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q2
    The rocky material left behind by a retreating glacier forms what is called a moraine. When primary succession occurs on a moraine, which life-forms will help create the soil by breaking down bare rock?
    Deciduous trees
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q3
    During ecological succession, how does the growth of young hardwoods affect the organisms living in an ecosystem?
    Grasses and low shrubs are unable to obtain the amount of light they need to survive, so there are small numbers of them
    The trees provide shelter and food for a variety of mammals, insects, and birds
    All of the above
    In autumn, falling leaves provide a source of energy for decomposers such as fungi
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q4
    Which statement best describes the differences in species diversity between an ecosystem beginning the process of primary succession and one beginning the process of secondary succession?
    No differences in species diversity exist because both ecosystems initially lack living organisms
    Species diversity is much greater in the ecosystem undergoing primary succession because that ecosystem is experiencing a longer period with a lack of competition for space
    Species diversity is greater in the ecosystem undergoing secondary succession because the soil already contains seeds and spores of various species
    Species diversity is much greater in the ecosystem undergoing primary succession because the lack of soil provides a greater area for organisms to claim niches
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q5
    As ecosystems move through the stages of succession, the populations of organisms in them change. Which of the following describes the stage of succession likely to have the most species diversity?
    An agricultural field that has not been plowed for one year
    A newly formed volcanic island
    A temperate forest that has never been cleared by logging
    A field that is regularly mowed
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q6
    How do an increase in the organic matter in soil and an increase in soil depth affect the population of plants in an area?
    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria kill young trees
    Larger plants become the dominant organisms
    Grasses become diseased
    Mosses replace flowering plants
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q7
    Hydrothermal vents form deep in the ocean when iron-rich magma is released from openings on the seafloor. These vents spew extremely hot water (400°C) mixed with methane and sulfur. Bacteria that thrive in this hostile environment form the base of a food chain that leads to colonization by tube worms, mussels, and many other life-forms. When a hydrothermal vent becomes inactive and cold, the bacterial community that lives in the hot fluid methane and sulfur dies out. Which organisms most likely succeed the original community in this ecosystem?
    Giant kelp that use sulfur in photosynthesis
    Cold-tolerant bacteria that feed on sulfur and iron in the vents
    Ocean mammals that tolerate cold and act as top predators in the food chain
    Fish that do not need oxygen for cellular respiration
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q8
    The graph below shows the changes in the number of species in an ecosystem. Which event was most likely the cause of the changes in species diversity in this ecosystem?
    Question Image
    A migration of locusts
    A small tornado
    A large volcanic eruption
    A flash flood
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q9
    Surtsey is an island located south of Iceland. The island was formed by a volcanic eruption and first appeared in 1963. The table below contains descriptions of changes in the population and diversity of species on Surtsey. Which of these lists the descriptions in the correct order of ecological succession on Surtsey?
    Question Image
    I, II, IV, III
    II, IV, I, III
    IV, III, I, II
    III, I, II, IV
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q10
    The graph shows the basic changes in a forest community after a disturbance occurred. The information shown in the graph suggests that the changes in the forest community were caused by —
    Question Image
    decreased species diversity
    tree-leaf replacement after a storm
    succession after a fire
    repeated habitat destruction
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q11
    A small town in the piney woods of East Texas has a soccer field composed of native grasses. The soccer field is mowed once a week. What effect does continual mowing have on the ecology of the field?
    Mowing maintains a low species diversity by inhibiting further succession.
    Mowing causes different types of communities to form across the field.
    Mowing increases the likelihood of nonnative species displacing native species.
    Mowing increases the number of species found in the field.
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession
  • Q12
    Enchanted Rock State Natural Area is located in Central Texas. Enchanted Rock is a dome of granite. The area contains four easily identifiable communities. The table describes characteristics of each type of community in the area. A student studying primary succession should focus on which of these communities?
    Question Image
    Mesquite grassland
    Granite rock
    Open oak woodland
    B.11.D: Ecological Succession

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