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Unit 9 Microorganisms and Body Systems

Quiz by Dana Sparks

High School - Biology
Science (2010)
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)

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26 questions
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  • Q1
    A student sets up a compost bin outdoors. Inside the bin microorganisms convert the student’s vegetable and paper scraps into rich fertilizer. Which of the following best describes the role that these microorganisms play in natural habitats?
    The microorganisms turn solar energy into sugars.
    The microorganisms help keep nutrients cycling through the ecosystem.
    The microorganisms help balance the numbers of producers and consumers.
    The microorganisms function as autotrophs.
  • Q2
    A student researching bacteria concluded a report with the following claim: "All bacteria disrupt the health of organisms they inhabit, including humans." Which statement correctly addresses the validity (correctness) of the claim?
    The claim is invalid because there are many types of bacteria that help organisms maintain homeostasis.
    The claim is valid because many studies and experiments have shown that bacteria disrupt homeostasis.
    The claim is invalid because only microorganisms such as viruses disrupt the health of organisms.
    The claim is valid because bacteria cause disease.
  • Q3
    The human digestive system is approximately 900 cm long. Food is moved through the digestive tract primarily by —
    hydrochloric acid in the stomach
    the enzymes amylase and pepsin
    bile produced by the pancreas
    muscular contractions
  • Q4
    Toxoplasmosis is an infection producing brain lesions. Mice with their gonads (reproductive organs) removed are more resistant to T. gondii and develop very few lesions on their brain tissue. Which systems most likely interact and cause the severity of infections to vary?
    Excretory and respiratory
    Nervous and integumentary
    Immune and endocrine
    Muscular and skeletal
  • Q5
    When the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is too high, the excess carbon dioxide reacts with water and produces carbonic acid. The carbonic acid causes the blood pH to become more acidic. When the blood pH becomes too acidic, chemoreceptors in the brain instruct the body to react and maintain homeostasis in blood pH. Which of these responses by the body would eliminate the excess carbon dioxide and help maintain homeostasis in blood pH?
    Increasing the body temperature by shivering
    Decreasing the heart rate
    Breathing more deeply and frequently
    Increasing glucose levels in the blood
  • Q6
    Scientists studying illnesses caused by chemically contaminated food conduct research to minimize the effects of these diseases on society. These chemicals harm the body through interactions between the digestive system and the immune system. Scientists conducting this research are likely to describe which of these interactions between the digestive and immune systems?
    he immune system transforms the chemicals in the contaminated foods into harmless chemicals. These harmless chemicals are then broken down by the digestive system.
    When contaminated foods are eaten, the immune system prevents the chemicals from entering the digestive system.
    Chemicals enter the immune system through a break in the skin. The chemical contamination is then passed to the digestive system by the circulatory system.
    Chemicals enter the digestive system through contaminated foods. Once in the body, the chemical contaminants impair the body’s ability to fight off infectious diseases.
  • Q7
    Which of the following is an example of the endocrine system directly interacting with the nervous system?
    The brain sends signals that control the speed at which food moves through the intestines.
    The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from injury.
    Hormones provide feedback that affects neural processing.
    Hormones provide feedback that affects neural (nerve) processing
  • Q8
    The female reproductive and endocrine systems work interactively for which main purpose?
    To release neurotransmitters during times of stress
    To maintain homeostasis by removing waste products from the body
    To control hormone levels to prepare the body for pregnancy
    To exchange gases to support cellular aerobic respiration
  • Q9
    A person infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may not have any symptoms for a period of time. During this period the virus affects the body by doing which of the following?
    The virus damages immune cells while using their machinery to produce copies of itself.
    The virus produces toxins that weaken immune cells and prevent them from reproducing.
    The virus damages immune cells while using their machinery to produce copies of itself.
    The virus changes the identity of the nucleotides of immune cells to prevent the immune system from functioning normally.
  • Q10
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often infects and destroys CD4 T cells. These CD4 T cells are one of many kinds of white blood cells that are an important part of the immune system. The most common danger related to the destruction of CD4 T cells is —
    a decrease in the amount of oxygen being transported to tissues
    an increase in the threat of diseases caused by microorganisms and viruses
    a decrease in the flow of blood to vital organs
    an increase in the risk of high blood pressure
  • Q11
    Saprophytes are fungi that feed on dead and decomposing organisms. They secrete enzymes that digest components of cell walls, such as cellulose and lignin. Which statement explains why these fungi are an important part of the biogeochemical cycle?
    Saprophytes extract minerals from living tissue to recycle them back into the soil.
    Saprophytes return organic material to the soil for use by living organisms.
    Saprophytes perform gas exchange that assists the cellular activities of autotrophs.
    Saprophytes transport nutrients through the xylem and phloem in autotrophs.
  • Q12
    What two human systems work together to provide body cells with a constant supply of oxygen while removing carbon dioxide waste products?
    Respiratory and circulatory
    Excretory and integumentary
    Muscular and skeletal
    Nervous and endocrine
  • Q13
    Kidneys are part of the excretory system in a human body. They purify the impure blood and send it back to the rest of the body. Which system is mainly responsible for the transport of plasma to the kidneys?
    Muscular system
    Circulatory system
    Respiratory system
    Nervous system
  • Q14
    How do the circulatory system and immune system work together to respond to an injury?
    Increased blood flow carries white blood cells to the site of the injury.
    Increased blood flow allows for an increase in the exchange of O2 and CO2 at the site of the injury.
    Increased blood flow kills healthy cells which prevents infection at the site of the injury.
    Increased blood flow removes infected cells from the body at the site of the injury.
  • Q15
    The 1918 influenza epidemic killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. This epidemic happened near the end of World War I. More people died from the influenza epidemic than were killed in the war. Which of the following explains why this virus was so deadly worldwide?
    Food was scarce because of the war, so people were undernourished, and their immune systems were weakened.
    All of the answers
    Infected soldiers returning from the war spread the virus when they coughed.
    Medical personnel often became ill as a result of exposure to airborne virus particles.

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